President’s Corner February 2016

Don’t forget, the spring conference, members meeting and Board of Directors meeting will be in Savannah, Georgia on March 6 to 8, 2016 at the Hilton Savannah Desoto Hotel, 15 East Liberty Street, Savannah, Georgia, 31401.  I want to again thank John Venneman and Greg and Reggie Gant for their work on another fantastic program.  If you are interested in speaking or know a speaker, please let John know as the program is filling fast.  I know many of you are caught in the cold and snow of January and February so come to Savannah where they average just 25 days of weather below freezing per year.

Well this will be my final President’s Corner.  I will miss my time to talk to the readership of this journal.  It is with mixed feeling as my second two-year term expires.  I wish Greg and John well in their roles as President and National Vice President.  I want to thank the Board of Directors and especially all the Regional Vice Presidents for their work and support over the past four years.  I also want to especially thank the Executive Committee (Ian, John, David and Dick) for their service for the past two years.  I have asked and received a lot of time and effort from them.

You all should have received your dues notice and we look forward to your renewal as a member.  We are looking to grow the membership to get us back into a position where we can begin reducing the fee again.

The relocation committee has been looking at some spaces and are getting quotes as well as interviewing people to try and replace Evie.  This may be all finalized prior to the conference and if so we will be introducing the space and the new person there.

Please get your regional going on notices to Greg Weeter/Evie in time for publication.

Please contact the undersigned, the Executive Committee or your Regional Vice President if you have questions, concerns or want to volunteer.

Best Regards,
Steven P. Weiss, NAMS-CMS


Applicant List

Applicant Applying for Region Sponsor
James Stansbury NAMS-CMS / H&M E. Gulf Conrad Breit
Daniel McKindsey Apprentice / Y&S E. Canada Raymond Toth
Dean Ford Apprentice upgrading
to Associate Y&S
S. Pacific George LeBaron,
Jay Flachsenhar, Dick Frenzel
Katherine Sweeney Associate
H&M and Cargo
N. Pacific Richard Frenzel,
Joe Derie & Ed Shearer


New MEMBERS Elected 18 December 2015

Applicant Applying for Region Sponsored by
Kelly Thody Assoc. up-graded to CMS Y&S W. Canada Christopher Small
Mohammed Zaheer NAMS-CMS
E. Gulf David Pereira
Nathan Seelig Associate
N. England Ed Shearer, Ron Sikora, Barry Geraci
Dexter Holaday, II Associate
N. England Jonathan Klopman, Steve Bunnell, George Stafford
Nathan Drabik Apprentice
C. Atlantic John Dott


Crossed The Bar

Sunset and evening star, And one clear call for me!
And may there be no moaning of the bar, When I put out to sea,
But such a tide as moving seems asleep, Too full for sound and foam,
When that which drew from out the boundless deep Turns again home.
Twilight and evening bell, And after that the dark!
And may there be no sadness of farewell, When I embark;
For though from out our bourne of Time and Place The flood may bear me far,
I hope to see my Pilot face to face When I have crossed the bar.




Gale Browning, NAMS-CMS passed away December 15th, 2015 after a six-year battle with breast cancer. Gale was from the Annapolis, Maryland area. She joined NAMS in 1997.

Charles Wiley, former NAMS member passed away December 23, 2016. Mr. Wiley was a member of the Central Atlantic region from 1988 – 2013.


Upcoming Educational Events

February 9 &10 in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

The 23rd Annual Knox Marine Yacht Claims Conference.  Register at SAMS and NAMS have traditionally given 12 CE credits for attendees.

February 23 – 25, 2016 Morehead City North Carolina

Marine Cargo Consultants, Inc. is hosting a Bunker Survey course February 22 and a Draft Survey Course February 23 – 25, 2016 at the North Carolina State Port Authority. Both programs are approved by NAMS for CE credits (6 for the bunker and 18 for the draft survey course). Course information may be accessed at or contacting the presenter at [email protected] or (202) 239-2729

March 4&5, 2016, Ft. Pierce, Florida

SAMS Florida Educational Seminar
Link to flyer and registration:

March 6 – 8 2016  Savannah, Georgia

NAMSGlobal 54th Annual National Marine Conference.
The NAMS Conference will be 6– 8 March 2016 at the Hilton Savannah Desoto, 15 East Liberty Street, Savannah, GA. 31401. Hotel reservations: 877.280.0751 or 912.232.9000 and ask for the NAMS Conference discounted rate, $159.00, plus taxes. Event details will be posted on the NAMS website as they become available

March 13-16, 2016 Knoxville, Tennessee

International Association of Marine Investigators 26th Annual Training Seminar
Hosted by: Tennessee Wildlife Resources.  Knoxville Hilton Hotel  Phone: (573) 691-9569
Email IAMI Headquarters: [email protected]

March 17 – 20, 2016 Chicago, Illinois

American Society of Appraisers ME215 Performing Machinery and Equipment Valuations for Financial Reporting Purposes Unless the MTS appraiser knows what to expect and the proper standards to follow, they may be in for quite an unpleasant experience and much frustration. This course will outline the applicable standards, what the role of the MTS appraiser plays as part of the valuation team, a review of various valuation techniques and how to handle the numerous questions arising from the audit review process. Please Note: This is an advanced course that assumes students are familiar with basic appraisal techniques.CE: 27 instructional hours
Price: $1,020 Member; $1,170 Non-Member.
To register call toll-Free 800-ASA-VALU (800-272-8258) or 703-478-2228
Email [email protected]

May 19, 2016 Kenner, Louisiana

7 hour USPAP (Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice) Refresher Course

MAY 20-21, 2016 Kenner, Louisiana

15 hour USPAP two-day course

These courses will be taught by a certified Appraisal Foundation Board Qualified Instructor and certificates for completion will be issued by The American Society of Appraisers. Credit hours will be accepted by NAMS, SAMS and ASA. Marine surveyors, & MTS, PP and GJ appraisers are encouraged to attend.

This is simply a “RESERVATION REQUEST” notice in the event you are interested in taking either course. We place your name on the list and send you a registration form.
Attendance will be limited so don’t delay once registration opens up. Questions may be directed to [email protected] or Chris LaBure, Program Coordinator (504-450-2133)

May 12-15, 2016; Las Vegas, NV

American Society of Appraisers Introduction to Machinery and Equipment Valuation
This course will introduce appraisal terminology and concepts and provide students with a solid foundation for a career in appraisal of machinery and equipment. This course covers MTS appraisal terminology; functions and purposes of appraisals; introduction of the three approaches to value; depreciation and factors affecting depreciation; field inspection techniques and safety; introduction to the issues of indexes in machinery and equipment appraising; basic pricing exercises for current and obsolete assets; and ethics and professional standards.  Call Toll-Free 800-ASA-VALU (800-272-8258) or 703-478-2228  Email [email protected]

June 8-9, 2016 Cleveland, Ohio

ASA 5th Annual Equipment Valuation Conference and Pre-Conference Appraisal Report Writing Update Class.  Call Toll-Free 800-ASA-VALU (800-272-8258) or 703-478-2228  Email [email protected]

National Cargo Bureau, Training Courses

American Boat & Yacht Council Classes

Currently ABYC offers eight certifications, which are all valid for a 5-year period at which point certified individuals will be notified that it is time to renew. Each of the Certification classes are worth 32 MEU’s.
ABYC’s customary education tracks include four days in a classroom and a test. ABYC’s FastTrac is another option whereby the student self-studies the material from the current study guide and reviews the two webinars available covering the content on the certification exam and attends the one-day review and exam. Or, if a candidate feels particularly strong in the content areas, candidates can completely self-study and register for either a written exam or make arrangements with ABYC to sit for a proctored online exam.
Full list of classes at

American Institute of Marine Underwriters EDUCATION CALENDAR – 2016

Students have two options: attend the classroom in person or remotely.You can attend from anywhere in the U.S. We provide you with a link to videoconference into the classroom. Turn on your computer, dial your phone (or turn on your computer speakers) and attend. This includes video and audio capability using Microsoft Live Meeting! You will have the ability to see, hear, and ask questions of the instructor. Education credits are available for in-class attendees (brokers and agents only).
Register at
For questions regarding registrations, please contact Elvira Rodin [email protected]
Office Phone: 212-233-0550


NAMSWorthy Articles Of Interest

Surveying to Standards
Co-Chair, Fishing Vessel Technical Committee, NAMS
Southwest Passage Marine Surveys, LLC

As a member of the Membership Committee for the North Pacific Region and as an ad hoc member of the NAMS Qualifications and Certifications Committee, I review surveys submitted by personnel desiring to become Associates and by Associates desiring to upgrade to NAMS-CMS. When reviewing those surveys, I look for two things: 1) Has the vessel been surveyed to the appropriate standards? and 2) Is the survey complete and thorough? That is, does the survey reflect that the surveyor looked at the entire vessel and are the findings reflected in the survey? In this article I am going to discuss the first issue. I will discuss the second issue in a future article.


A NAMS surveyor has to survey a vessel to the proper standards. If they do not, then their survey cannot accurately reflect whether the vessel is or is not “suitable for use in its intended service.” If surveyors do not know the particular standards that apply to a vessel they are surveying then, by the NAMS Code of Ethics, they should not be surveying those vessels since they have accepted an assignment they are not qualified for. As the Chairman of the NAMS Ethics Committee, I can assure you that whether the surveyor is qualified to survey the vessel in question is one of the first things determined when conducting an ethics investigation and that is mentioned in the report submitted to the President.

Many times when I review a survey, the boilerplate statement at the beginning of the survey states that the vessel was surveyed to USCG, OSHA, NFPA and ABYC or other standards. Following that statement there is absolutely nothing in the report that shows the vessel was, in fact, surveyed to those standards. Standards are never mentioned again in the report. My concern then is whether the surveyor knows those standards and has surveyed the vessel to those standards or just included them to make the survey look professional. In cases where it is obvious from the report that the surveyor does not know the standards, I recommend that the applicant not be granted the status requested and be required to reapply at a future date.


The point is that when surveying vessels and writing reports the standards should be specified. When you state that the vessel needs carbon monoxide or smoke detectors, state in your report as “recommended by sections 13.1 and 13.3 of NFPA 302.” State in your report whether the number of portable fire extinguishers meets or exceeds the USCG standard 46 CFR 25.25. If the machinery space doesn’t have a fixed fire extinguishing system, recommend it per par. of ABYC Standard A-4.

Another reason to state the standard is that whoever receives the report knows that the findings are not just whims of the surveyor, but are based on the cited standards, either mandatory or industry. This goes a long way toward displaying your professionalism, your knowledge of the requirements for the vessel, and the thoroughness of your survey.


One final word, when you survey a vessel and cite a standard, be sure you are surveying to and citing the correct standard. A case in point was the surveyor who submitted a survey on a tugboat that referenced 46 CFR 28 throughout, the USCG commercial fishing vessel standard. Another case was the surveyor who referenced 33 CFR throughout, the USCG recreational boat standard, on a tug survey. These surveyors obviously did not know the appropriate standards and their surveys were not found acceptable.

Preparation for Ice in Winter
Capt. Kamal Ahmed, NAMS-CMS
Antares Marine Consultants, Inc.

Prior making a voyage into subfreezing zone, Master must ensure that the vessel is suitable for navigating in that zone, crew are duly trained, are well protected with PPE, are provided with necessary gear and are familiar with the operations of the vessel in ice conditions.  Master also needs to prepare his or her vessel to encounter severe winter conditions to prevent damage to the vessel and or its machinery.

Ballasting & De-ballasting

  • While pumping out Ballast Water from the Cargo Hold, there is a tendency of ice forming on the frames & girders. Consider heating holds by Electrically Operated Heaters.
  • For sounding Ballast Tanks, sometimes it will be useful to blow hot air through the air pipe. It may be necessary to frequently pour Glycol or clear the sounding pipes with sounding rod.
  • Ballast tanks should be maximum 90% full to allow expansion due to freezing. Care must be taken by pumping ballast in and out to ensure that the vent pipes are not blocked with ice.
  • De-ballast one tank at a time. Continue stripping without any break.

Equipment & Apparatus

  • At temperatures below -30C, move the rudder Port & Starboard side enough to keep the Rudder Stock free.
  • Propeller and Bow Thruster should be well below water.
  • Anchor should be free and ready to be moved from the hawse pipe position. The pumps for Windlass and Mooring Winches should be running at all the times.
  • Lifeboat Engine & Emergency Generator should be filled up with Anti-Freeze. Pay attention to fresh water tanks in life boats (leave some void)
  • Emergency fire pump suction strainer should be free of ice and the pump should be ready for use at all times.
  • Make sure that the seachest vent is not choked/frozen and its valve is left open. Never use compressed air to clear sea chest in operation as it will create an airlock in the SW cooling system.

Pipe Lines & Valves

  • Fire Lines should be drained out and blown with air. The anchor wash line should be drained out.

Canadian Regulations

  • Every Ship of 100 tons gross or over, navigating in ice covered waters of Eastern Canada must have and use the publication “Ice Navigation in Canadian Waters (TP5064).
  • Canadian regulations require that all vessels navigating in ice to be equipped with a system to prevent icing and chocking of sea chests and to maintain an essential cooling water supply.  (Ref: Canadian Marine Machinery Regulations-SOR/90-264). Icing/blockage could occur between December to March.
  • Transport Canada strongly recommends to have onboard and to have all personnel knowledgeable of the following documents:
  1. Winter Navigation on the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence Practical Notebook for Marine Engineers and Deck Officers (TP14335/Edition 2011)
  2. Joint Industry-Government Guidelines for the Control of Oil Tankers and Bulk Chemical Carriers in Ice Control Zones of Eastern Canada (TP15163/Edition 2011).

Draft Marks

  • During winter, sometimes it is not possible to read the Draft Marks. It may be helpful to take the Photographs of Draft Marks for obstruction by Ice and issue a Note of Protest Letter, witnessed by the Agent.

Forward Draft mark, Starboard Side covered with (approximately) 25cm thick ice

Navigation & Maneuvering

  • If the air temperature is below freezing, avoid taking head wind and sea spray which forms ice on the Fore Castle and on Deck. If necessary, reduce speed. It is better to lose a few hours than a complete week in port “Off-Hire” with an expensive de-icing shore crew. There was an instance where the ship owner had to pay USD 50,000 for an Electrical Jack Hammer to break 100 cm of thick Ice from the Hatch Covers (6 men/24 hours for 2 days).
  • Follow the weather routing for Insurance purpose.
  • The main engine must be ready to go astern any time.
  • To go astern, the rudder must be mid-ship to prevent the propeller and rudder from damage.
  • To prevent the hull from damage caused by impact, enter the ice at low speed and then increase to moderate speed to maintain headway and control of the ship.
  • Do not drop the anchor where ice is dense in order to avoid the danger of the anchor chain being cut.

Bridge & Bridge Equipment

  • Ensure whistle/horn heaters remain “On” at all the times.
  • Radar scanners to be kept turning all the times.
  • Turn on navigation lights at all times (at sea).

Deck, Windlass, Mooring Ropes & Pilot Boarding Arrangement

  • Ensure that all mooring ropes and wires on the drums are securely covered. No mooring ropes should be out at sea.
  • Gangway, Pilot Hoist, Windlass, Compression Bars should be greased.
  • Pilot transferring equipment and boarding procedure should be maintained.
  • Manila Ropes should not be used for lashing on deck as it becomes stiff in cold temperature. Polypropylene or synthetic ropes are suitable for this type of weather.
  • Deck & Muster Station must be free of Ice & Snow.

All forward Deck fittings and Air Pipes to be covered by burlap & coated with grease mixed with Glycol.

An accumulation about 350 M/T of ice on Deck.

Crew protection

  • Heating in the accommodation shall be always in working condition.
  • The entire crew must be provided with proper winter clothing.

ISM Code
The ISM Code is intended to address risks associated with ship operations and establish well documented vessel specific procedures and practices. The Crew members designated to the vessel are required to possess skills and knowledge essential for the safe execution of tasks they are expected to perform in normal day to day operations and during emergency situations.

Ice-accretion on super-structure / containers / deck-cargo /masts can seriously imperil the vessel’s stability. Sufficient GM (F) to counteract same must be maintained.

Useful links:

DWINDLING POOL OF MARINE SURVEYORS: The AIMU committee discussed the lack of qualified surveyors in the US and globally, and also lack of timely responses and proper reports from marine surveyors. It was mentioned that low starting salary does not attract recent graduates. R. Ahlborn mentioned that NCB reviewed their pay scale and benefits to attract younger employees. It was discussed that marine insurance industry may need to increase salary for entry level positions, and assist new hires with training and job shadowing. How AIMU and this committee can play a role not yet decided.   Courtesy AIMU Weekly Bulletin.

While their departure may have been delayed by a struggling economy, baby boomers heading toward retirement pose an ongoing challenge for the insurance and brokerage industry: how to attract the next generation of talent to its workforce. “Our industry will face a significant generational change over the next decade, one that I don’t believe has begun in earnest yet,” said Mike Sicard, chairman, president and CEO of USI Insurance Services L.L.C. in Valhalla, New York. Baby boomers are defined as those born between 1946 and 1964. And according to the Pew Research Center, millennials — those born between 1981 and 1997 — soon will become the largest living generation. They supplanted Generation X — those born between 1965 and 1980 — this year as the largest portion of the U.S. workforce. This, however, looms ominously when considered against The Hartford Financial Service Group Inc.’s survey this year that found only 4% of millennials had insurance on their work wish list, besting only wholesale trade and utilities at 3%. Arts and entertainment topped millennials’ list of preferred jobs at 40%, followed by education at 36%. “Clearly the industry is old. It’s populated by a lot of baby boomers, certainly on the distribution side,” such as brokers and sales, said Timothy J. Cunningham, managing director at Chicago-based investment banking and consulting firm Optis Partners L.L.C. “Less than 5% of young people choosing their career paths are giving insurance a serious look,” said Kathleen Reardon, CEO of Bermuda-based Hamilton Re, a unit of Hamilton Insurance Group Ltd. “If every person who graduates from an insurance or risk management program of study goes straight into the insurance industry, we still won’t fill our employment needs. So, it’s not an exaggeration to say that we have a talent crisis on our hands.” “The group that was 45 years old 20 years ago should have been recruiting the 25-year-olds, but did not,” said Mr. Cunningham. “Now they are age 65 and they don’t have an adequate number of 45-year-olds to come in behind them.”Overcoming millennials’ generally unfavorable view of the industry is the challenge. According to the Hartford survey, 43% of millennials say companies should promote the fact that they provide flexible work hours. Another priority is broadening the industry’s diversity, which Mr. Cunningham said may be a greater challenge for insurance brokers than insurers. (Business Insurance, 12/21/2015)  Courtesy AIMU Weekly Bulletin.

JCC SURVEYOR’S CODE OF PRACTICE: The AIMU committee briefly reviewed the code of practice developed by the Joint Cargo Committee for Marine Project Surveyors. It was agreed that members would review and send all comments to Andrew Kinsey. The revised and improved document would be posted to the AIMU website for use in the US market and shared with SAMS and NAMS.  Courtesy AIMU Weekly Bulletin.

Retailers, manufacturers and farmers world-wide are protesting a new marine shipping safety rule they say will raise transport costs and cause delays at ports worldwide. The rule, which kicks in next July in 171 countries, requires exporters to certify the weight of containers before they’re loaded onto ships. Carriers say accurate weights are needed because overloaded containers frequently damage cargo and even cause ships to capsize. But shippers in many countries say they are ill-equipped to weigh so many containers. Some say they learned about the rule only recently and are still in the dark about key details, including how it will be enforced. In a survey of shippers, carriers, and others involved in global trade conducted by container booker Inttra Inc., 57% of respondents were only vaguely familiar or not aware of the rule, and nearly 60% did not believe shippers would be ready by July. “The industry has been slow in making shippers aware,” said Juerg Bandle, senior vice president of sea freight for Swiss logistics company Kuehne + Nagel International AG. “Now the industry is under time pressure to implement. It will be very challenging.” The conflict over the new rule shows how the shipping industry is struggling to balance safety and speed. Shipping lines have in recent years rolled out large ships capable of carrying as many as 20,000 containers, lowering overall expenses but raising the potential cost of an accident. Meanwhile, shippers fret about even short delays as they are under pressure to deliver goods faster to consumers and businesses. A too-heavy container can crush cargo underneath, cause a stack to topple, putting a vessel in danger. The World Shipping Council estimates an average of nearly 1,700 containers were lost at sea annually between 2008 and 2013, though that’s a small fraction of over 120 million shipped annually. Over the last few years, a committee including government representatives and shipping industry associations drew up rules for mandatory weighing, which were adopted last year by the International Maritime Organization, an arm of the United Nations that regulates shipping safety. The new rule was adopted as an amendment to IMO’s Safety of Life at Sea Convention, known as SOLAS, an international treaty concerning the safety of merchant ships. Starting in July, shippers must either weigh filled containers or add up the weight of the box and its contents. Experts say this could make shippers liable if an incorrect weight is found to have caused damage to a ship or its cargo. Shippers that already weigh their cargo may simply have to submit additional documentation. Others may need to buy scales, or pay for certified weighing services, which would add time and expense when transporting goods to ports. “There is serious concern that there are not even enough third-party scale providers to handle this service for the heavy container volumes,” said Beverly Altimore, executive director of the U.S. Shippers Association. The U.S. Coast Guard hasn’t released details of how it will enforce the weighing rule and declined to say when it would. The World Shipping Council, representing carriers, said shippers have enough information to comply. “Nobody should be waiting for national guidelines before taking steps to implement the weight requirement,” said John Butler, the group’s president. Carriers and ports say they plan to enforce the IMO’s rules starting in July. Hapag-Lloyd AG , the fourth-biggest container line by volume, will leave containers that are too heavy at the docks, a spokesman said. Terminal operators at the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey plan to turn away containers if they aren’t certified, said Bethann Rooney, assistant director of the Port Authority’s commerce department. APM Terminals, the port terminal-operating unit of Danish conglomerate A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S, may offer weighing services to shippers for a fee, said Thomas Boyd, a spokesman. APM would set up scales near its ports, and is still working out pricing, he said. Still, shippers say meeting the IMO’s standards will be difficult. Crops such as cotton and lumber can swell in humid environments, increasing their weight, said Peter Friedmann, executive director of the Agriculture Transportation Coalition. He said his group will ask the Coast Guard for a 6% or 7% margin of error. “Putting the entire burden on the shipper is not fair,” he said. (The Wall Street Journal, 12/4/2015)  Courtesy AIMU Weekly Bulletin.

Shipping Hazards Associated with the Coal Trade 
A major P & I Club warned their member companies of hazards associated with the coal trade, specifically that from Indonesia. The two primary concerns with this commodity are self-heating and the creation of a flammable gas, methane. The main steps to take during loading are to regularly monitor the temperature of the cargo and reject any that is in excess of 55° Celsius (131° Fahrenheit) and to close any partially filled vessel holds if delays occur. Also, immediately after loading is completed, the holds are to be closed and the atmosphere of these spaces checked for the presence of methane, carbon monoxide and oxygen.

The Club has developed a detailed checklist specifically for coal from Indonesia but it is also relevant for coal sourced anywhere ( The checklist fundamentally mirrors the recommended practices contained in the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code.

USCG – VHS-DSC radio equipment
The US Coast Guard issued a policy letter concerning VHF-DSC radio equipment installation requirements for inspected passenger and commercial fishing vessels. CG-CVC Policy Letter 15-06 [located at]. This policy is also reflected in MSIB 15-15 [located at].Courtesy: Bryant’s Maritime Blog

USCG – out of water survival craft
The US Coast Guard posted a policy letter providing guidance regarding out of water survival craft and replacement of life floats and rigid buoyant apparatus. CG-CVC Policy Letter 15-05 [located at] (12/18/15).  Courtesy: Bryant’s Maritime Blog


Poem of the Month

courtesy Ted Crosby, NAMS-CMS

“She’s your command, Skipper,” the Company says to me,
“For better or worse, you’re the boss of this hearse
As soon as she puts to sea.
Use your own judgment, Skipper-hold her well off the coast
Keep a true log-heave to in the fog
Safety first is our boast.”
Slave to a berth and tradition, I listen and bow my head,
But the orders I hear with my inner ear
Are the ones that are left unsaid.

“The hooker’s insured, Skipper-get her out and in.
Our sailing dates and cargo rates
Mean twelve knots-thick or thin.
From here to there is our motto. To hell with the wind and the tide.
You make these joints by cuttin’ the points-
Not by playin’‘em wide.
So use your own judgment, Skipper, but think of the penalty.
There’s better captains than you on the beach
We know where they are-they’d be easy to reach,”
The Company whispers to me.

By James A. Quinby
The Street And The Sea



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