March 2019

Jennifer Yovan, Office Manager, [email protected]
Greg Gant, President
David Pereira, Vice-President
James Neville, Secretary
Matthew Knoll, Treasurer
Immediate Past President, Steven P. Weiss
Phil Peterson, E-News Editor

The President's Corner


     The NAMS National Marine Conference in Vancouver, Washington is quickly approaching.  David Pereira and his team have been busy assembling a diverse speakers’ list that covers topics across the Marine Surveying disciplines along with a little marine enrichment and ethics.  While speakers form the structure for the conference, its discussion raised among the attendees that are often where the most valued learning is achieved – and it’s all about the learning.  I’m looking forward to seeing you there and learning something from you.  Are you registered yet?  Contact the NAMS National Office to register.  And remember, Vancouver, Washington is serviced by the Portland, Oregon International Airport (airport code PDX).  It’s about 12 miles from PDX to the Hilton Vancouver Washington.  You can call or go to the Hilton Hotel web site to book your room:

When I started in the marine industry, Noah had retired, but we still had to learn how to calculate rivet patterns in steel hull plates.  I’ve repaired refractory bricks inside the firebox of a boiler and steam tubes inside the steam drum of a ship at sea.  Direct current was our power source with open front switchboards.  Fuel was 10 cents a barrel.  Wastewater went over the side.  A few other of you may know to what I refer.  That’s knowledge that colors my background but doesn’t get called upon all that much today.  We moved to fuels counted in the dollars/gallon range, not the cents per barrel.  We’ve moved from steam to gas turbines, LP fuel and LP fuel bunker barges.  Electric/hybrid ships and boats are the emerging technologies of today.  My first ship had a LORAN navigation unit, serial number 00013.  I remember it well, but satellite based, integrated navigation and radar are the systems of today.  Where are you?  Are you up-to-date?  Some of our members are the leaders in these moves.  Come to Vancouver and share your experiences with theirs.  Learn from them and teach them something at the same time.  See you there!

                                                   2019 NAMS National Marine Conference
                                                                      March 27-29, 2019
                                                                 Vancouver, Washington
                                                           Hilton Vancouver Washington
301 W. 6th Street
                                                                   Vancouver, WA   98660

Reservations can be made by calling: 800 445-8667
Group Room Block Space is limited and only available until Friday, February 22, 2019.  Ask for the NAMS Room rate $149.00ntplus taxes.  Single / Double standard room.  Additional charges for upgrades. or book online:

Our Guaranteed room pricing has expired but please try to still book directly with the hotel above and mention you are with the NAMS group if you have any problems please contact the office.

May I remind you that your utilization of the Hilton accommodations supports the conference.  NAMS has guaranteed this block of rooms be filled in order to get the advantageous room rate and other conference concessions necessary to make the conference a success.  If you don’t book and use them, we pay for them. 
Remember, each time you sign a letter, report, or email and include the “NAMS-CMS” moniker, you are representing the professionalism that is NAMSGlobal.

Learn Something Everyday and Share Your Knowledge!

View From the Helm of The NAMSGlobal eNews

Our national conference is fast approaching, and I’m looking forward to seeing members at the meeting.  There have been a few bumps in the road producing the newsletter this past year, but we are now using updated software, and are able to publish eNews in-house.  Articles from fellow NAMS members are always welcome, and we’d also appreciate news from the various regions for the newsletters.  Please bring your thoughts, ideas and suggestions for the newsletter!

See you in Vancouver, Washington!
Phil Peterson
NAMS e-News

Applicants/Members Change in Status

Name                            Applying For            Region                      Sponsored By

Jacques Boudreaux                CMS                           East Gulf                             Kyle Smith

Mark Clark                               CMS                          New York                       Reinier Van Der Herp

Robert Galeota                        CMS                         Great Lakes                         Kevin Bache

Anthony Pelliccio                   Associate                    New York                             Safdar Khan

Narold Orcena                         CMS                          West Gulf                          Hipolito Almoite

Crossed The Bar
Hjalmer E. Breit III

Hjalmar Edmund Breit III, 76, a prominent marine surveyor and competitive yachtsman, died on Thursday, 7 February 2019 at his home in Bush, Louisiana after a valiant battle with cancer (and not by a confederate sword). Hjalmar was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to H.E. “Del” Breit, Jr. and Virginia “Nia” Martin Breit, and was a resident of New Orleans, Louisiana for over 74 years. He attended St. Martin’s Episcopal School, Centre College and graduated from the University of Southern Mississippi.

Hjalmar owned and operated Breit Marine Surveying and was a NAMS-certified marine surveyor for over 42 years. His expertise in surveying spanned projects throughout North America and the Caribbean. Hjalmar was also an accomplished, passionate sailor and served as past Commodore of Southern Yacht Club where he was instrumental in the rebuilding of SYC after Hurricane Katrina. He was awarded a lifetime membership of SYC. He is survived by his wife, Polly Eagan, his son, Hjalmar E. Breit IV (Michelle); his stepson, James Judson Crane II (Greg); his four grandsons, Hjalmar E. Breit V, Aaron A. Breit, Hunter Breit, and Torbin Breit, step-grandson, Chase Thompson and his twin sister, Susan Carroll (Joe). He was preceded in death by his son, Conrad Breit (Jacqui) and his stepson, John Craft Crane. He will be sorely missed by his spoiled poodles: Bentley, Cosette and Tee Doux.  Viking by blood, Yankee by birth, Southerner by choice.

Upcoming Educational Opportunities


March 17 – 20, 2019
Biloxi, MS

IAMI’s 29th Annual Training Seminar

March 6, 2019
Synthetic Fibre Rigging Online Seminar

Rigging – it is what holds the mast up and transfers the power of the wind in the sails into forward momentum – it’s kind of important and needs to be looked after. 

Synthetic fibre – we walk on it, we wear it, we make sails out of it, build aircraft wings out of it – but what is it?

The seminar will look at the many forms of fibre, how it is put together and attached; and where do we as surveyors come in, how can we inspect it and what reference points may we have?

This will be a 90 minute session presented by Kim Skov-Nielsen, IRMS, IRMC, DipMarSur, MIIMS, SAMS AMS. 


Lloyd’s Maritime Academy continues to offer both seminars and distance learning in a variety of subjects of interest to marine surveyors.  A sampling of classes starting in March and April include:

        Diploma to in Marine Investigation

* American Institute of Marine Underwriters*

March 5 – 6, 2019
York City and on line

Introduction to Yacht Insurance

This course will look at yacht insurance and risk selection that encompasses pleasure craft of any length. Students will study the Marine Insurance Policy: policy definitions, terminology, physical damage, liability and protection and Indemnity (P & I) coverages and much more. The Risk Selection part of the program includes underwriting concerns, claims review and the use of the pleasure craft surveyor report. Watercraft liabilities and the legal environment will be discussed in a comprehensive lesson plan.

March 12, 2019
New York City

Introduction to Marine General Liability

This introductory class will briefly cover five segments including the Marine Regulatory Environment, the Basic Comprehensive General Liability coverage, Marine General Liability Coverage, Types of Operations, Underwriting Criteria, and Case Studies in an effort to provide a useful overview of this broad subject.

March 27 & 28, 2019-02-25
New York City

Introduction to Offshore Engery

This 2-day class consisting of key topics including History of Offshore Energy; Underwriting: Operators Extra Expense/Control of Well and Physical Damage; Alternatives to the Commercial Market; Client Perspective: Risk Management; CAT Management; Treaty Reinsurance; Claims with Case Studies; and Brokering. This class, to be instructed by leaders in the industry, is the result of a two-year project of the AIMU Offshore Energy Committee.

April 10 & 11, 2019
New York City

Introduction to Hull Insurance

This course will review the forms and clauses used to insure hull and machinery damage coverage for blue and brown water vessels. Students will study the insuring agreements, conditions, exclusions, limitations and special features of the forms. Underwriting and claims principles and practices will be discussed. Learn about surveyors and the different types of surveyors that can be assigned and utilized to improve the risk and/or assist in the claims process.

American Boat and Yacht Council *

March 5 – 8, 2019
Ashland, WI

ABYC Marine Corrosion Certification

The Corrosion Certification class is designed and intended for those with a minimum of 3-5 years practical experience in the marine field. It is highly commended that certification candidates already have the ABYC Electrical Certification before attempting the Corrosion Certification program. It is presumed by the course content that candidates have a reasonable understanding of basic concepts, such as, electrical grounding, electrical current flow, galvanic isolation, and basic marine electrical terminology.

Successful completers of this certification program and exam will have a good understanding of all of the various types of corrosion and be able to perform a thorough corrosion analysis on boats of all types.

March 12, 2019
Toledo, OH

ABYC Training Seminar – Wiring, Battery Maintenance, and Circuit Protection

Get industry training, learn how to maximize your ABYC membership and enjoy dinner with us!  Earn industry CEU credits and network with other industry professionals in this late afternoon gathering. 

  • Wiring and Circuit Protection
  • Battery Maintenance
  • New Products and Applications
  • Marketing and New Business Development

March 1, 2019
Michigan City, MI

ABYC Training Seminar – Wiring, Battery Maintenance, and Circuit Protection

See course description for same course in Toledo, above.

March 16 – 18, 2019
Midland, Ontario

ABYC Marine Electrical Certification

The course is designed for the marine professional with at least 3 - 5 years’ experience working with marine electrical system design, installation or repair and will provide the student with a comprehensive and focused look at the key ABYC standards.

The successful certification candidate should have some familiarity with ABYC Standards and Topics Covered listed below. 

The new three day class format now includes an online learning component designed to provide preliminary coursework prior to the class.  The online component for the ABYC Electrical Certification class covers various information from the course book.  It also provides an overview of ABYC along with certification requirements and helpful hints to manage your certification.  

The online learning component access will be sent by email two weeks prior to the course start date

March 19, 2019
Toms River, NJ

ABYC Marine Systems Certification

This course is designed for the marine professional with experience working with marine systems design, installation or repair. This course will provide the student with a comprehensive and focused look at the key ABYC Standards. The successful certification candidate should have some familiarity with ABYC Standards and Topics Covered listed below. 

The new three day class format now includes an online learning component designed to provide preliminary coursework prior to the class.  The online component for the ABYC Systems Certification class covers chapters one-four of the course book.  It also provides an overview of ABYC along with certification requirements and helpful hints to manage your certification.  

March 25 – 29, 2019
Annapolis, MD

NASBLA Boating Accident Investigation and Analysis Level 1 Comprehensive Course

The Boating Accident Investigation and Analysis Level 1 Comprehensive Course provides the opportunity to develop and perfect the skills necessary to conduct a thorough and comprehensive recreational boating accident investigation. The course is presented in a blended learning format comprised of both classroom instruction and an online portion that must be completed prior to the start of the class.

Aug. 6, 2019
Annapolis, MD

ABYC Marine Electrical Certification

The course is designed for the marine professional with at least 3 - 5 years’ experience working with marine electrical system design, installation or repair and will provide the student with a comprehensive and focused look at the key ABYC standards.

The successful certification candidate should have some familiarity with ABYC Standards and Topics Covered listed below. 

The new three day class format now includes an online learning component designed to provide preliminary coursework prior to the class.  The online component for the ABYC Electrical Certification class covers various information from the course book.  It also provides an overview of ABYC along with certification requirements and helpful hints to manage your certification.  

Towing Vessel Inspection Bureau *

March 12 – 15
New Orleans, LA

Annual Survey of Towing Vessels Course

The class provides surveyors with the knowledge and skills required to perform TVIB TPO Subchapter M annual surveys of towing vessels. It has been designed to teach those who will be performing surveys as a part of an internal survey program, as well as those surveyors who wish to hold the credential to perform external surveys for TVIB. Everyone who successfully completes the course will receive a course completion certificate. This course is the surveying course required for those individuals seeking the TVIB Certified Subchapter M Surveyor for Annual Surveys credential.

June 25 – 27, 2019
Houston, TX

Subchapter M Auditor Certification Course

Subchapter M requires auditors to successfully complete a training course for auditing a Towing Safety Management System (TSMS). This three-day course teaches external (third-party) auditors how to audit a company’s TSMS, with an emphasis on those companies using the American Waterways Operators’ Responsible Carrier Program as the framework for their TSMS. Students who successfully complete this course will have an in-depth understanding of auditing both safety management systems and the vessels that operate under those systems and what compliance means under Subchapter M. This is the appropriate course for those individuals seeking certification to become an approved TPO Auditor, as well as an RCP Lead Auditor/Vessel Auditor. This course is also ideal for company personnel who want to better understand the expectations of their external auditor. This course meets the requirements of 46 CFR 139.130 (b)(4) for those seeking to perform external audits under a TPO.

 * Society of Accredited Marine Surveyors *


March 27 & 28, 2019 – USPAP
March 29, 2019 – Regional Meeting

Traverse City, MI
Information here


March 27 & 28, 2019
Newport, RI


March 29 – 30, 2019
Cornelius, NC


June 13 – 14, 2019

Hatchcover Course – Level I

Preparing operators of SDT ultrasonic tightness testing equipment to carry out tightness inspections in line with good practice and IACS UR Z17 requirements for class service suppliers - this requires delegates to have basic knowledge about hatch covers, their maintenance, operation, repairs as well as theoretical and practical training with SDT class type approved equipment.


March 21, 2019
Long Beach, CA (aboard the Queen Mary)

ME208-000 Marine Survey

This course is designed for the non-marine professional who wants basic knowledge of the industry and for the marine professional who wants to learn more about the appraisal side of the industry. Topics covered in the course include:

  • Marine equipment and its special language;
  • The marine industry and function of marine surveyors and appraisers;
  • The three approaches to value as they apply to commercial and yacht appraisal;
  • Identification of marine equipment and systems, both commercial and yacht;
  • Preparing an appraisal report; and 
  • Different types of Bluewater and Brownwater equipment.
    *The exam for this course is optional.


The Boatpokers Email Form has been operating in its present form for over 18 years.  Participation in the forum was limited all this time to SAMS members, however it has just been opened up to include NAMS members as well.

An Email forum is a mechanism where you can send a message to a special Email address and it automatically gets resent to everyone else on the forum.  In the case of Boatpokers any message sent is relayed to about 200 other marine surveyors, so there is a vast pool of knowledge and experience available to subscribers.

All messages since 2001 have been saved in the "Archives", which are searchable...  an excellent resource worth the price of admission alone!

There is a web site for the forum which explains everything in detail at: 
This is a paid forum, a subscription costs $50.00 CAD (Canadian Dollars) per year (see ) for current values in US dollars or other currencies.  If you wish you can ask for a 30-day free trial subscription to see if the forum is for you.  Expect between 5 and 20 email messages per day, depending on what is being discussed.

To sign up visit the web site where you can contact the Listmaster, Don Robertson to get set up.    
Or you can call him on his cell:  905 566-0000.

*Northwest School of Wooden Boatbuilding Marine Intensives*

For more information and registration on this course click here
*32 CE credit opportunity per course.*

NAMSWorthy Articles of Interest

Conflicts of Interest: Surveyors Who are also Naval Architects or Marine Engineers

Chair, NAMS Ethics Committee
Co-Chair, NAMS FV Technical Committee
Southwest Passage Marine Surveys, LLC

The NAMS Code of Ethics requires that a surveyor “shall not be engaged so as to create conflicts of interest.” It further states that “No surveyor shall accept an assignment where a potential conflict of interest exists or can be reasonably foreseen.”

It also states that a surveyor: “Shall not perform repairs to any vessel they have surveyed.”

I was recently contacted by a NAMS marine surveyor who is also a naval architect. He was curious about a possible conflict of interest with a vessel he surveyed and the later request of the owner for his services as a naval architect for the vessel.  I told him that any possible conflict of interest would go back to the purpose of his survey and its relation to the work his potential client wanted performed.

If his survey recommended a stability booklet or study, then he shouldn’t perform it. If he recommended a new piece of equipment, and the owner decided to follow his recommendation, the surveyor/naval architect shouldn’t provide drawings or specifications for the new equipment or its installation. However, if the owner simply wanted his opinion about a particular brand or model, there would be no reason the surveyor couldn’t give an unpaid opinion, unless, of course, he was involved with the manufacturer or seller of the model in question in some way. 

Another situation would be in the case of a naval architect or marine engineer who surveys a vessel and the client later wants to extend it 20’, add a new deck crane, or make another major modification to the vessel. There is no reason the surveyor couldn’t accept that assignment, as long as they didn’t recommend it, verbally or in writing, as part of their survey.

What about the case of the surveyor who surveys a towing vessel and finds the vessel has many deficiencies related to 46 CFR Subchapter M? Later they are asked to assist the owner with helping the vessel meet the standards of 46 CFR Subchapter M and correct any deficiencies listed in the report. As long as his work is in the way of advising on how to correct deficiencies listed in the report and follow up surveys to verify the vessel now complies with 46 CFR Subchapter M there would be no problem. If, however, the owner asked the surveyor to do the actual work of correcting deficiencies such as color coding or marking piping or electrical panels, etc., that would be a definite conflict of interest and the surveyor should not accept the assignment.

As always, I hope anyone who wants to discuss this article or has questions about FVs, 46 CFR Subchapter M or ethics will contact me at 503-236-6818.

How Stena Reactivated an 18-Year-Old Semi-Submersible
From Offshore Support Journal)

Working with a new client, a new regulator and on boarding new crew were the key challenges Stena Drilling had to overcome when reactivating the 2001-built semi-submersible Stena Don from cold stack, delegates at this year’s European Dynamic Positioning Conference heard today

Stena Drilling marine superintendent John Flynn told a packed auditorium at this year’s European Dynamic Positioning Conferencethat the market downturn meant that after 15 years’ service on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, the Moss Maritime CS-30 designed Stena Don was warm stacked in Norwegian coastal waters before being transferred to Inverness, Scotland for cold stacking – the first time Stena Drilling has cold stacked a vessel.

In April 2018 Total offered the vessel a 120-day contract drilling the Glendronach well in the West Shetland frontier. “We had 60 days to reactivate the rig. It took us four months to get it into cold stack,” recalled Mr. Flynn.

Working with a new client and new regulator were sizeable challenges; but the biggest challenge was absorbing a new crew, having worked with the same team for 15 years.

To bring the new team up-to-speed, Stena Drilling invested in a drilling-systems rig simulator and worked with third-party trainers to develop training modules that included drilling and tripping, well control and stuck pipe training.

The programme was so successful that Stena Drilling now uses the simulator for all its reactivations and start-ups. Stena Don is now working on new Total contracts that will keep it employed for another year and a half.

Stena Drilling spent US$80M upgrading the Stena Don, including installing an eight-point mooring system and upgrading the DP system to a position mooring system.

New Mechanical Hybrid Propulsion Solution
BY MAREX 2019-01-22 15:59:40


In a close collaboration with Svitzer of Denmark, SCHOTTEL has developed a new hybrid propulsion concept. The new concept is based on the recent SCHOTTEL Y-Hybrid thruster technology and connects a port and starboard mounted azimuth thruster in a vessel with each other. This makes it possible to drive two thrusters with either one of the main engines. The companies are now discussing a pilot project to retrofit an existing tug with the new mechanical hybrid technology. This will transform the direct driven vessel into a greener and more cost-efficient vessel. 

Svitzer runs a fleet of 430 vessels and operations all over the world, and is having a high focus on innovations and options for fleet modernization. Thomas Bangslund, Group Head of Innovation at Svitzer, was closely involved in the development of the synchron-mechanic hybrid drive system. Svitzer is convinced of the operational and environmental benefits of the new SCHOTTEL SYDRIVE-M in both retrofits and new building projects. 

Common vessel operation profiles for tugs or workboats include up to 90 percent of operation time with low engine loads. To optimize propulsion systems for such load, conventional hybrid propulsion systems come with two independent power sources per propeller, normally configured with a main engine and a smaller electric motor. Those additional electric components make those hybrid concepts more complex and more expensive. 

Many advantages in main operation modes

Based on the unique SCHOTTEL SRP-Y Hybrid upper gear module for azimuth thrusters, SCHOTTEL SYDRIVE-M is a new variable and purely mechanical hybrid propulsion system with no need for any additional electronical components or an additional gear box. This system comes with many advantages as noted in the three following main operation modes: 

- Light Operation or Free Sailing Mode

The core functionality of SYDRIVE-M is to mechanically connect two thrusters and one of the two main engines for all light operation activities which do not require full power of the two main engines. In this synchronized Light Operation Mode, one of the two main propulsion engines remains alternating off. This leads to a noticeable reduction of operating hours of the main propulsion engines, and thus to a reduction of maintenance costs.

In addition, the single running main engine remaining in operation is now better loaded by two thrusters and operates in a better specific fuel consumption range, leading to less fuel consumption and emissions. In contrast to a conventional tug, with two engines running in traditional Light Operation Mode, where both engines are operated at a relatively low rpm range which is not efficient with regard to fuel consumption and emissions.

- Full Thrust Operation Mode

For short operation times when full propulsion power is needed, the connection between the two thrusters is disengaged and each engine is engaged to each thruster. The system is now identical to any other directly driven propulsion system.

- FiFi-Mode

For any directly driven vessel the new SYDRIVE-M system provides a solution to enable fire-fighting operation with no need of an additional investment in components like medium or heavy duty slipping clutches, CP propellers or dedicated engines to supply power to a FiFi-pump. For the SYDRIVE-M FiFi-mode, the disengaged main engine is used to drive the FiFi-pump through its front PTO. 

For newbuild and retrofit 

SYDRIVE-M can be integrated into any usual vessel design with direct propulsion with no need of design
changes. It is available for the SCHOTTEL Rudderpropeller and SCHOTTEL EcoPeller series of azimuth thrusters from 1,000 kW up to 3,000 kW. Retrofit is possible upon request for specific SCHOTTEL azimuth thrusters and engine types. The system has been filed for patenting.   BY MAREX 2019-01-22 15:59:40

A Market Niche Seeking a Transportation Technology

file photo BY HARRY VALENTINE 2019-02-09 20:01:58

While maritime transportation offers the lowest costs per container, a portion of the market seeks fast delivery of their containers. This market niche sends containers by rail between China and Europe, at higher transportation costs, and it is extending across the ocean where an evolving technology could carry containers much faster than ships and at much lower rates than heavy-lift freight aircraft.


A market for faster transportation of containers has been developing over several years. Across extended distances separated by ocean, wing-in-ground effect transportation technology shows possible promise. Russia built the Caspian Sea “Monster” also known as the “Ekranoplan” that was originally intended for military transportation. Boeing developed a concept ground-effect plane called the “Pelican” that was intended to fly with 300-feet wingspan. It was intended to travel a few feet above water across ocean and on approaching a coast, increase altitude to up and over 10,000 feet. Boeing suspended the Pelican project.

Present wing-in-ground effect vessel builders have so far developed small versions of the technology, several utilizing the triangular or reverse delta wing profile while a single German builder utilizes the tandem wing arrangement. Triangular wing builders are located in Singapore, South Korea, Germany and Australia. Russian designers combine the rectangular main wing with a high-mounted tail wing, a feature also common to the triangular wing variants. One Russian concept proposes to carry four lengthwise rows of containers, placed in six columns built into special compartments across the upper width of each “blended” wing that involves extreme chord length.

Heavy-lift Freight Aircraft

While several designs of heavy freight aircraft are able to carry standard shipping containers, these heavy-lift carriers operate mainly in military transportation service. Boeing has shown a simulation presentation of a concept civilian heavy-lift carrier of 28 standard shipping containers stacked in two levels of 14 containers carried width-wise, with rapid loading and unloading capability. The largest heavy-lift freight aircraft in the world is the Russian built Antonov-AN-225 with a take-off weight of 700 tons. 

Many commercial companies engage in fast transportation of freight using modified commercial aircraft, but they have been reluctant to develop air transport of standard containers. Fuel consumption represents the single biggest cost factor in commercial freight aviation, and very few airports internationally can serve an aircraft of 700-ton weight and 289-foot (88-meter) wingspan. 

The market for international fast transportation of standard shipping containers may require a trans-oceanic vehicle that is faster than ships and perhaps travels at the speed of a long-distance fast freight train, while consuming a fraction of the fuel of heavy-lift commercial aircraft. There may be an evolving market application for a large, heavy-lift wing-in-ground effect vehicle that lifts off from and touches down at seaplane runways.  

Fuel Consumption

Fuel consumption varies with engine power output that in turn varies with vehicle speed. Aerodynamic (hydrodynamic) drag varies with the square of vehicle speed while power required = drag x speed making power vary with the cube of the speed. Doubling vehicle speed increases power requirement by a factor of eight, in turn increasing energy consumption by a factor of eight. For equal weight and frontal cross sectional area, a ground effect vehicle traveling close to a ground or water surface will require a third of the power of the identical vehicle flying at 1,000 feet elevation using aeronautical wings. 

Air density at ground level is 1470/347 = 4.25 times that at 35,000-feet, so converting a jet liner to a ground effect vehicle will increase power requirement and fuel consumption by a factor of 4.25/3 = 1.42 times. By slowing the plane from 500 mph to 250 mph, power requirement and fuel usage would drop to 1.42/8 = 0.18 or about 20 percent of the amount consumed at 35,000 feet at 500 mph. A type-A ground effect vehicle built up to 2,000 tons laden weight and carrying standard shipping containers, could touch down on and lift off from designated seaplane runways at protected bays and inlets.

Vehicle Economics

Economy-of-scale would contribute to the economic case of large type-A ground effect vessels built to several times the laden weight of commercial freight aircraft and traveling at about a third the speed to reduce energy consumption. While carrying many times containers as freight aircraft, the transportation cost per container is intended to be a fraction of that of such aircraft. A percentage of the market may be willing to delay delivery of their containers by a few hours compared to air freight, to realize savings in transportation rates. Builders may need to collaborate to build such a vehicle.

Potential Routes

U.S.-U.K.-Europe: Railway lines at the City of Bristol connect into the Western Europe via a tunnel built under the English Channel. Bristol is located on the Trent-Severn channel where a designated seaplane runway for ground effect vehicles may be possible. Along the American east coast, a designated seaplane runway may be possible at Long Island Sound with a container terminal being located near La Guardia Airport or near railway lines located on both sides of the sound. The ground effect vehicle would be able to accelerate to lift-off speed on calm water at both ends of the route.

U.S.-Australia: There may be scope to designate seaplane runways at both the bay at San Francisco and at Botany Bay, Sydney Australia, where container terminals for ground effect vehicles may be located next door to the international airports. Railway access would be possible at both Sydney and San Francisco. Both locations would provide calm water for a ground effect vehicle to accelerate to lift-off speed.

Asian Locations: There may be scope to designate a seaplane runway for ground effect vehicles at Johor Strait near Singapore, where a container terminal may be located near Changi Airport. At Hong Kong, a designated seaplane runway may be possible right next to the international airport, where a container terminal may be located. At Osaka in Japan, a seaplane runway may be possible next to Kansai International Airport. At South Korea, a designated seaplane runway may be possible near Seoul and close to Incheon International Airport.

Brazil: The international airport at Rio de Janeiro is located at the inner bay where a container terminal for ground effect vehicles may be developed. Upon arriving at and departing from Rio, the central span of the bridge measures 300 meters (1,000 feet) while the spans of the immediate adjacent spans each measure 200 meters (660 feet). The bridge is of sufficient height to clear large ships and airborne ground effect vehicles guided by automated computer navigation control. Route connections to the eastern U.S. and Europe (via the U.K.) are possible.

Trans-Arctic route: Between late in April to early December, ground effect vehicles that fly at sufficient elevation could travel via the Arctic region, connecting east coast U.S. to eastern Asia, west coast U.S. terminal in U.K. and also a major western European terminal to major Asian terminals. Ground effect vehicles would still be capable of travel across the Arctic when early winter conditions prevent ships from sailing via the region.

Trans Ocean Requirements

A large ground effect vehicle may likely be built with catamaran twin hulls or even triple hulls to provide good stability in wave conditions during touch down and lift off. Designers may consider including retractable hydrofoils to increase speed during journey departure to assist with lift off. An airborne vehicle traveling at perhaps two meters elevation above “calm” deep seawater could manage waves where crests could be 1,000 meters or 1,600 feet apart and wave height of six meters (20 feet). The vehicle could also be designed to travel at higher elevation when storm conditions occur on the open ocean.

Russian designers claimed that the Ekranoplan could travel at 10 meters (33 feet) above the Caspian Sea. The South Korean built ground effect vehicle could apparently climb to an elevation equal to 40 percent of its wingspan, suggesting that a vehicle built to a 40-meter (132-foot) wingspan may be able to climb to 16 meters (52 feet) elevation. Type-B wing-vessels are designed to climb to 150 meters (500 feet) elevation, and some routes would require such performance capability. Ground effect vehicles intended for trans-ocean service across the open ocean would require sufficient elevation capability to travel across storm driven seas.

Vehicle Research Challenge

Courtesy of the presence of a local industry building ground effect craft, engineering researchers at National University of Singapore studied the dynamics of such technology. They discovered that changing the scale of the technology revealed changes in vehicle dynamics that were inconsistent with change of scale. Russian researchers who have built large-scale ground effect vehicles for military purposes have been reluctant to elaborate on vehicle dynamics inconsistencies related to change of scale. The large-scale Russian vessels built with rectangular main wings provide a basis to add a second wing in tandem configuration behind the main wing.

In Germany, research engineer Gunther Jorge built several tandem wing ground effect vehicles in Germany. The configuration offers future promise of an extended length mega-size type-A vehicle built with two-pairs of main wings (60-meter wingspan) in tandem configuration plus the high elevation tail wing for improved stability when carrying heavy payloads over rough seas. Such a configuration would require further research, as would a mega-size vehicle built with triangular or reverse-delta shaped wings of up to 60 meters wingspan. Researchers would need to focus on a possible 2,000-ton vehicle capable of extended-distance trans-oceanic service.

Partial Scaling Alternative

Several years ago, a researcher who discovered that some occurrences that involve either fluid dynamics or thermodynamics cannot be scaled, suggested an alternative that involves partial scaling. When applied to a rectangular wing profile, the partial scaling approach would involve building a section of wing, including a tandem wing configuration at full height and length, but only 0.3 meter or one foot in width. Fans would blow air at varying flow rates into the narrow and high inlet. A rectangular wing would involve building and testing multiple narrow sections of wing profile that represent different regions of wing.  

The intended objective of partial scaling research would be to develop a wing capable of carrying a trans-oceanic ground-effect vessel of 2,000 tons at speeds of 25 to 35 percent that of commercial freight aircraft, at sufficient elevation to assure passage across storm driven ocean wave conditions. Each of the forward and rear wings of a tandem wing configuration would likely involve greatly extended wing chord length to carry such a weight objective involving a vessel of perhaps 60-meter wingspan and the overall length of a bridge span. 


The largest hydrofoil boats built involve a weight of 300 tons or less than 50 percent the take-off weight of the Antonov AN-225 aircraft. A catamaran hull vessel of 2,000 tons weight and built with ground effect wings would need to accelerate to between 100 km/hour and 150 km/hour to become airborne then lift to sufficient elevation to travel above waves at speeds of over 200 km/hour (125 miles/hour). Gas turbine engines with exhaust heat reclamation to improve efficiency would form the basis of propulsion, possibly driving propellers the diameter of helicopter rotors to maintain high propulsive efficiency.

One American proposal that eliminates the reduction gearbox uses an engine-driven turbo-compressor to pump air through a pipe and into air ducts housed inside a rotor-propeller built with jets at the blade tips. General Electric is apparently developing a compact closed-cycle gas turbine engine that generates electric power that could drive multiple propellers on a mega-scale ground effect vehicle. The turbine engine industry seems able to provide engines capable of accelerating a 2,000-ton ground effect vehicle to lift-off speed and maintaining a high trans-oceanic cruising speed, provided that researchers could design a potentially successful version of such a vehicle. 

Forward Propellers

The leading edge of the wings of ground effect scoop air to generate the necessary air dynamics to lift the vehicle as it accelerates. To enhance the lifting dynamics, some Russian builders have installed propellers forward of the leading edges of the wings. The arrangement directs a portion of the rearward moving fast stream of air under the wings, to enhance lift. There may be merit to installing forward propellers ahead of the wings of large-scale ground effect vehicles to enhance vehicle lift upon acceleration to higher speed and while traveling, to increase vessel elevation to ride above waves.

There may be scope to install an electrical generator to the main turbine engine, to produce electric power to activate forward propellers. At some future time, compact size closed-cycle turbine engine that drive electrical generators would provide power to sustain operation of both forward mounted and rear mounted propellers.


There is much ongoing development internationally related to autonomous vehicle navigation. Such navigation has for decades assisted commercial airline pilots on long-haul flights. In this modern era, there would be scope to adapt an undated version of automatic pilot control to navigate mega-size ground effect vehicles traveling extended distances across ocean. Following departure from a terminal, a reel-out glider housed in the tail assembly would reel out to an elevation of up to 2,000 feet to scan ahead and feed information to the automatic pilot. It would reel in upon arrival at the destination terminal.

Upon departure and arrival, remote crews located at shore-based play stations would navigate the ground effect vehicles using restricted-frequency radio control. An alternative could involve a small aircraft being attached to the vessel upon departure, with crew providing navigation. Once away from shore, the small aircraft would detach and return to its base, with crew onboard. Prior to arrival at a terminal, crew piloting a small aircraft would touch down on the deck and assume pilot control, guiding the mega-vessel to a terminal.

Possible Collaboration

While Boeing is recognized for building commercial and military aircraft, the company has also built hydrofoil ferry vessels. Researchers in the faculty of engineering at National University of Singapore have for several years investigated various aspects of wing-in-ground effect vehicles, courtesy of Singapore being home to a builder of a 12-passenger version of such a vehicle based on triangular or reverse delta wings. The Wing-ship group of South Korea has built a 50-passenger version of such a vessel. In Germany, the Flair-boat company has built several vehicles that use a tandem wing arrangement.

While a Russian builder has shown a design of a container-carrying ground effect vessel, an extended length tandem wing version of the vessel could likely increase container carrying capacity from 48 to 60 TEU. Perhaps there may be scope for Boeing to discuss future prospects of mega-scale ground effect technology carrying containers over extended distances across ocean, with Asian and German builders of the triangular wing and tandem wing versions of ground effect craft. There will need to be discussions with possible customers such as UPS and FEDEX or even ship transportation companies. 


Railway transportation along the East Asia – Western Europe container transportation link has revealed a market niche for fast movement of containers at premium tariffs.
Based on the Asia – Europe train, as yet untapped market niches that involve faster trans-oceanic container...
-Thanks to Childs Dunbar, NAMS-CMS, for forwarding this article


From the AIM Weekly Newsletter

It’s been an active beginning to 2019 in terms of maritime casualties.  The phone at the Panama Marine Accident Investigation Department was likely ringing off the hook with three major incidents on Panama-flagged vessels in the first two days.  The first three weeks of the year have produced a wide range of serious casualties…and they are likely just the tip of the iceberg in terms of incidents and near misses.

These casualties started with the Sincerity Ace, a Panama-flagged car carrier which suffered a major fire in cargo spaces on 31 December 2018 in the North Pacific.  The vessel was subsequently abandoned with four known casualties and one crew member missing.

On January 1st/2nd, MSC Zoe, a Panama-flagged ultra large container vessel (ULCV) was enroute Bremerhaven, Germany.  During heavy weather, the vessel lost 290+ shipping containers overboard.  The containers have started washing up on German and Dutch beaches with significant pollution.

Also, on January 2nd, 6 crew members from the MSC container ship MSC Mandy were kidnapped off the coast of Benin. The Panama-flagged feeder vessel was on the way from Lome to Lagos when a reported 8-10 pirates boarded the vessel and left with 6 of 26 crew, possibly including the captain.
A fire aboard the Yantian Express, a 7500 TEU container vessel reportedly started in one container on deck on January 3rd and spread.  The subsequent blaze forced the crew of the German-flagged vessel to abandon ship to a responding tug boat.  The blaze was finally being brought under control a week later.  Yantian Express is reportedly making her way to Freeport in the Bahamas under her own power.

In the Black Sea off Turkey, Volgo Balt 214 split in two and sank in heavy seas.  While 7 of the Panama-flagged cargo vessel‘s crew were rescued by Turkish authorities, 6, including the captain, were lost at sea.

Hong Kong harbor was the site of an explosion onboard the tank vessel Aulac Fortune on January 8th.  The Vietnam-flagged vessel was preparing to bunker when the explosion occurred.  At last report 1 crew member had perished with multiple still missing.

The Vanuatu-flagged cable layer Star Centurion was anchored in the Horsburgh OPL off Singapore on January 13th when the outbound Hong Kong-flagged tanker Antea collided with her.  The damage to Star Centurion was so severe that she capsized and sank soon after with all crew being rescued.
Back in the Black Sea on January 21st, Tanzania-flagged LPG tankers Candy and Maestro were conducting a ship-to-ship (STS) transfer of cargo in international waters.  During the transfer, a fire broke out, engulfing both vessels.  The two vessels had a combined crew of 31 of which 19 were killed or are missing. (gCaptain, 1/29/2019)
And One More:


Container ship APL VANCOUVER has fire on board, in containers on cargo deck, fire started on Jan 31 or earlier. The ship en route from Shenzhen to Singapore had to interrupt voyage and head to Vietnam waters, sailing to small Vung Ro Bay in Phu Yen Province. It is not clear yet, but most probably, she was brought to anchor, in the afternoon Jan 31. Vietnamese Coast Guard SAR ship CSB 8005 approached APL VANCOUVER in the afternoon Feb 1 and started firefighting. Understood salvage company already contracted. No injuries reported. (Maritime Bulletin, 2/1/2019)



The Texas Supreme Court on Friday ruled that Anadarko Petroleum Corp. can pursue Lloyd’s of London underwriters to recover some $100 million in legal defense costs the oil company said it incurred as a result of the Deep-water Horizon disaster.

The Texas Supreme Court ruling in Anadarko Petroleum Corp. and Anadarko E&P Company, L.P., Petitioners, vs. Houston Casualty Company, Et Al., Respondents overturns a 2016 state appeals court ruling that favored insurers.

In Friday’s decision, Texas Supreme Court Justice Jeffrey S. Boyd said that the so-called “joint venture provision” in the insurance policy does not limit the liability of Lloyd’s underwriters for Houston, Texas-based Anadarko’s insured defense expenses.

Justice Boyd remanded the case to a trial court for further proceedings.

The case involves a coverage dispute over legal fees and related costs Anadarko incurred defending against liability and enforcement claims arising from the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill.

Anadarko owned 25% of the Macondo well that was drilled by Deepwater Horizon, which blew out in 2010 and resulted in a massive oil spill.  Anadarko argued that the insurance policy covered all of its defense expenses, up to the policy’s $150 million excess coverage limit. However, Lloyd’s underwriters contended that a policy provision caps the excess coverage, including coverage for defense costs, at 25% of that limit.

A separate dispute between Anadarko and Lloyd’s concerning the amount of defense expenses is yet to be resolved by a trial court.  “We hold only that the joint venture provision does not limit the underwriters’ liability for Anadarko’s insured defense expenses and reach no conclusions as to the actual amount of those expenses, if any,” the Supreme Court said in Friday’s ruling.

Representatives for Lloyd’s and Anadarko did not immediately respond to calls requesting comment. (Business Insurance, 1/25/2019)  NOTE: AIMU filed an amicus curiae brief in support of Lloyd’s position.

Louisiana Relies on Dredging for Navigation and Land Restoration

The dredge Alaska working on assignment at Cheneire Ronquile (Photo: GLDD)


 When maritime stakeholders think about dredging, they typically first conjure up visions of harbor deepening projects to accommodate those giant, post-Panamax boxships. Conversely, inland players hope for maintenance dredging in the heartland to keep the nation’s 31,000 cargo barges afloat as they head for the coast. But, there is much more to it than that.

 In Louisiana, dredging, of course, keeps Louisiana's waterways open for navigation, provides material for coastal restoration and helps industrial plants with drainage. The biggest projects are sponsored by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) in New Orleans and the state's Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA). The state's newest and largest restoration projects will span several decades and could cost $1 billion or more each. In this case, they are badly needed as the shoreline shrinks.

 In the last 50 years, Louisiana lost about 34 square miles of marsh and other land annually to the sea. The state has relinquished 2,000 square miles since 1932. Louisiana's dredging industry welcomes, albeit with some reservations, the Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act, or WIIN, approved by Congress in December, along with a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' plan, announced in December, to deepen waterways.


WIIN, (Win?)

WIIN, signed into law by President Obama on December 16, facilitates harbor and channel deepening, and expands the fed-state, cost-sharing for navigation-construction projects from 45 to 50 feet deep. That means waterways will be able to accommodate larger vessels. WIIN allows the Army Corps to make improvements to ports, waterways, dams and flood protection. It authorizes 30 new infrastructure projects across the nation. Congress will still have to appropriate funding for most of these projects, however. WIIN also establishes a pilot program for activities that use dredged material. It calls for Harbor Maintenance Tax funding targets to grow by 3 percent annually over each previous year, with a goal of providing all collected HMT revenues for use by the nation's ports and harbors by fiscal 2025.

Sean Duffy, executive director of the Big River Coalition in Metairie, La., said WIIN's navigation and construction provisions will increase opportunities for Louisiana's dredging industry. The Coalition's 100 maritime members rely on the Mississippi River. Separately, a plan released by the Army Corps in December would deepen portions of the Mississippi River navigation channel, including stretches between New Orleans and Baton Rouge, to 50 feet. The channel measures 45 to 47 feet deep now. More dredging would allow Mississippi River ports like New Orleans, Plaquemines and South Louisiana to handle large post-panamax vessels traveling through the expanded Panama Canal. 

Coastal Master Plan Projects 
Released in January, Louisiana's $50 billion, 50-year 2017 draft Coastal Master Plan includes large-scale marsh creation projects that depend on dredging. The plan is an update of earlier versions in 2012 and 2007.

“These marsh creation projects will be implemented over several decades and in multiple phases,” Rudy Simoneaux, manager of CPRA’s engineering division, said last month. The projects include $1.8 billion for Belle Pass to Golden Meadow Marsh Creation on 24,800 acres; $680 million for Large Scale Barataria Marsh Creation on over 12,400 acres; and $1 billion for New Orleans East Landbridge Restoration on 21,400 acres.

 CPRA has awarded all of its recent dredging work on a low-bid basis, consistent with the state's bid laws. “To date, Illinois-based Great Lakes Dredge & Dock and New Jersey-headquartered Weeks Marine have received the most dredging contracts let by CPRA,” Simoneaux said. Mississippi River sediment diversions in the master plan are crucial to building and maintaining land, along with protecting levee investments. The agency wants to see sediment diversions constructed as soon as possible. 

 The state hopes to build the Mid-Barataria Sediment Diversion at mile marker 60.7 on the west side of the Mississippi River, near Myrtle Grove in Plaquemines Parish. The diversion would restore Barataria Basin habitat, including fresh, intermediate and brackish marshes, by re-introducing sediment and nutrients that maintained the area in the past. The project would include dredging of sediment mined from the Mississippi River. “As coastal conditions decline, the state must expand ways to leverage the sediment and land-building power of the river on an even greater scale in future master plans,” CPRA said in January. 

 Regarding the new WIIN legislation, “CPRA views its passage as a very positive thing for ports, the Army Corps and other entities involved in navigation dredging,” Simoneaux said. “But how ecosystem restoration fits or applies under this legislation hasn't been determined yet.”

 As for the Army Corps' plan to deepen parts of the lower Mississippi River channel, including stretches between New Orleans and Baton Rouge, “CPRA is always in favor of innovative dredging opportunities,” Simoneaux said. “But given the location of the reaches included in this deepening proposal, along with the locations of dredging projects in our 2017 master plan, it may not be cost-feasible to use dredged material from this deepening for ecosystem restoration.” CPRA will continue to examine the possible use of that dredged material.

Army Corps sees that channels are dredged

Keeping the lower Mississippi open for navigation is the Corps' biggest dredging cost in south Louisiana. Over the last five years, dredging from Mile 10 AHP (above Head of Passes) to 22 BHP (below Head of Passes) cost an average $56 million, Army Corps spokesman Rene Poche in New Orleans said last month. “That includes Southwest Pass, which runs from Mile 0 to 22 BHP. A combination of cutterhead dredges and hopper dredges is used there.”

 Annually, an average 64 percent of the material dredged from Mile 10 AHP to 22 BHP is used beneficially, Poche said. This includes marsh creation, wetlands nourishment, and restoring ridges and barrier islands. The Corps tries to use dredged material beneficially whenever it's cost-effective and meets federal laws, and utilizes it along the banks of South and Southwest Pass, in the Delta National Wildlife Refuge, the Atchafalaya Delta Wildlife Management Area and in the Sabine National Wildlife Refuge. 

 Besides the Mississippi River, the Corps' other big dredging projects are along the Calcasieu River and Pass in southwest Louisiana, and the Atchafalaya Basin in the south central part of the state. “The Calcasieu Project allows deep-draft, 40-foot access to the Port of Lake Charles and terminals along the Calcasieu River,” Poche said. Dredging is done at a number of spots in the Atchafalaya Basin to maintain 12-foot channels for commercial navigation, he said. These include “Three Rivers,” where the Red, Atchafalaya and Old Rivers meet in east-central Louisiana; the Old River Lock Forebay, northwest of Baton Rouge; below Bayou Sorrel lock to the south of Baton Rouge in Iberville Parish; and Berwick Bay Harbor on the Lower Atchafalaya River near Morgan City.

 The Corps' Calcasieu dredging typically costs between $12 million and $20 million a year, while the Atchafalaya Basin dredge work runs from $3 million to $4 million yearly. As for the WIIN legislation, “it had nothing to do with why we're pursuing deepening of the river, nor with the depth being proposed,” Poche said. “Our effort was initiated more than two-and-a-half years ago, whereas WIIN was signed weeks ago,” he said in January.

 GLDD: Keeping busy with NOAA, CPRA Contracts

At one of the big dredging companies, “we're working on two large, coastal restoration projects in Louisiana now – one for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, called Cheneire Ronquille, and the other for CPRA called Whiskey Island,” said Bill Hanson, vice president at Great Lakes Dredge & Dock. “We've been active in Louisiana since the current generation of coastal projects, including Pelican Island, Bayou Dupont, Scofield Island, Shell East and Shell West. These unique projects showcase the abilities of the nation's coastal engineering community and will serve Louisiana and the Gulf well in battling land loss. These projects have been challenging to implement and very satisfying to see to completion.”

GLDD was pleased to see WIIN signed into law. “In addition to many new projects, WIIN covers policy issues that will affect our marketplace for years to come,” Hanson said. “Among them are the cost-sharing provisions for maintenance dredging, continued HMTF reform, emphasis on regional sediment management and beneficial use of dredged material.”

Magnolia Dredge Replenishes Marshlana

In a project completed early last year, Magnolia Dredge & Dock – working as a subcontractor – pumped material from the bottom of Lake Borgne at Alligator Point to assist in recreating nearly 500 acres of marsh, where land had eroded, Magnolia sales manager Michael Johnson in Mandeville, La. said. Healthy marsh absorbs storm surge and floodwater, protecting the coast. The project was under the auspices of a mitigation bank managed by Ecosystem Investment Partners, a private equity firm in Baltimore, Maryland.

 Since the early 1980s, the nation's mitigation banks have helped manage natural resources longer term. In south Louisiana, mitigation banking sets standards for land restoration in compliance with a “no net-loss of wetlands” provision in the Clean Water Act. Credits for restoration are sold to developers with projects that might impact ecosystems adversely.

 Separately, “other recent work by Magnolia includes industrial-environmental dredging to remove contaminants from waterways, and to restore and clean process ponds for South Louisiana’s petrochemical plants and paper mills,” Johnson said.

 Potential big WIIN for the Mississippi

WIIN, which includes the Water Resources Development Act of 2016 or WRDA 2016, increases opportunities for the dredging industry. “The most important WRDA 2016 project for our Big River Coalition membership is deepening the Mississippi River ship channel from Baton Rouge to the Gulf to 50 feet,” Sean Duffy said. “WRDA 2016 reduces the non-federal, cost-share of channel deepening up to a threshold of 50 feet, from 50-percent federal and 50-percent non-federal to 75-percent federal and 25-percent non-federal. It expedites feasibility studies for three navigation-related projects and makes incremental improvements in Army Corps processes and data transparency, in harbor-maintenance spending targets, and in non-federal options for maintaining navigation channels.”

“If Congress provides the authorized funding, and the Corps completes these projects, WRDA 2016 will increase supply-chain transportation and port options and efficiencies,” Duffy predicted. Late last year, the Big River Coalition was glad to see the Army Corps' draft report and its Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on deepening the Mississippi River ship channel, or MRSC, to 50 feet, Duffy said. The Coalition has been engaged with the Corps and its non-federal sponsor--the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development--on this effort and believes that bringing the MRSC into the neopanamax future is critical. The Coalition will continue to assist the Corps and LDOTD to ensure the channel is deepened.

Equipment Availability Depends on Government Decisions 

Nationally, “there weren't always enough hopper dredges in recent years to respond to needs,” Duffy said. “But by the end of this year, two new large hoppers will be available. Great Lakes Dredge & Dock will have their new ELLIS ISLAND, the largest hopper dredge in the nation, ready to begin work towards the second quarter of 2017. And Weeks Marine is constructing a large hopper dredge that should be on line by the end of the year.”

The navigation and dredging industries depend on federal appropriations, and if increased funding were annually consistent, industry would respond by building new equipment, Duffy said. Navigation would benefit from having better-maintained channels. Meanwhile, the average, per-cubic-yard cost of using cutterhead dredges declined in the last few years because of a perceived abundance of cutterheads, he said
-Thanks to Childs Dunbar, NAMS-CMS, for forwarding the article



The industry body InterCargo has welcomed the latest amendment to the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC 04-17) which entered into force on January 1 by says that liquefaction of cargo continues to be a major risk.
The pertinent updates include: changes to section 4.5 of the Code which stipulates the shippers’ responsibility to ensure that the testing and sampling for Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) and moisture content is carried out at the correct intervals; changes to the individual coal schedule which strengthen and clarify the de